June 15, 2009 at 1:12 pm #11163HeidiModerator
LOW FREQUENCY RESEARCHâ€”CLIENT POPULATIONS AND COMMON FREQUENCIES USED
By Dr. Heidi Ahonen,
Professor of Music Therapy, Wilfrid Laurier University, Ontario, Canada (www.wlu.ca)
Director of the Laurier Centre for Music Therapy Research (www.soundeffects.wlu.ca)
In this post I want to summarize the conditions that, according to previous low frequency research projects are responding well to low frequency based treatment. I also want to introduce the common frequencies used. This information can be used as a starting point for future research projects.
40 Hz and 68 Hz are effective with autistic children (Skille, 1989; Skille & Wigram, 1995, p. 38; Persoons, J., DeBacker, J., 1997) and frequencies under 60 Hz are effective for Rettâ€™s syndrome. According to Wigram (1997) children relaxed and their hyperventilation and tension reduced. Vibroacoustic treatment has been used with hearing-impaired clients (Skille, 1992). Darrow & Goll (1989) and Darrow (1992) also studied how the Somatron improved rhythm identification and pitch discrimination.
There has been previous studies with parkinsonism and vibroacoustic by San Vicente, Manchola & Serna (1997) in Txagorritxu Hospital, Basquie Health Service. 40Hz frequency was used with 60 patients with Parkinsonâ€™s disease. This double-blind randomized study combined music and low frequency waves vs. music without low frequency waves. There was also a follow-up after one year. The Scale of Daily Activities and the Exploration of Motor aspects were used. There was a subjective assessment by the patients themselves and by the medical doctor. The assessment of the results were positive in the areas of movement, personal autonomy and memory. At the LCMTR (http://www.soundeffects.wlu.ca) we conducted a parkinsons research in which we used 30Hz frequency (Almeida, King, Ahonen-EerikÃ¤inen, 2009) in collaboration with Karkkainen. The results were significant. Winter 2009 we conducted a clinical case study combining 30Hz and 40Hz.
Lehikoinen (1994, 1997) studied that the 40Hz frequency may reinforce the thalamus frequency which is also 40Hz (Galambos, Makeing, Tamachoff, 1981, cited in Lehikoinen, 1994, p. 27). [Delta wave frequency is approximately 0.5-4 Hz, Theta 4-8 Hz, alpha 8-13 Hz, beta 13-30 Hz, and gamma is appr 20-80 Hz (Bressler, 1990, cited in Lehikoinen, 1994, p. 27).] There has also been some evidence that the 40Hz brain wave is disturbed or disappears in the early stages of Alzheimer disease (Llinas & Ribary, 1992, 1993). According to Lehikoinen (1994) Physioacoustic treatment, based on the 40Hz frequency, reinforces the thalamus frequency. Because Thalamus has a role in the cognitive brain functioning it would be crucial to stimulate it in the early stages of Alzheimer disease. If the 40 Hz has been disturbed or disappeared it may come back if stimulated by the Physioacoustic method. The current research proposal at LCMTR is to find out if the thalamus frequency can be reinforced by the physioacoustic method. If so the 40Hz frequency-intervention can be a potential intervention for stroke, altzheimer or other brain injured clients.
40 Hz and 60Hz has also been effective when treating wide range of spasticity (Skille & Wigram, 1995; Wigram, 1997). 40Hz and 60Hz frequencies have been effective alone and in combination with physiotherapy when treating cerebral palsy. There has been some results in reducing muscle tone (Skille, 1989; Skille & Wigram, 1995, p. 41- 44). 40 Hz has been effective in multiple sclerosis. According to Skille (1989) and Skille & Wigram (1995) â€œreduction of rigidity and considerable palliative effect has been reportedâ€ (p. 40). 40 Hz has been useful when used with patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (Chesky, Rubin & Friske, 1992). Results show that music vibration reduced some pain. 40 Hz has also been used when treating polyarthritis, especially in hands and chest (Skille, 1989; Skille & Wigram, 1995, p. 40).
Michel & Chesky (1996) studied music vibration in pain relief. According to Skille (1989) and Skille & Wigram (1995, p. 39) low-back pains have been reduced by the use of 52 Hz frequency. Accordingly 68Hz has been effective with neck and shoulder pains. Physioacoustic treatment has also been used in order to decrease the pain of knee replacement patients (Burke and Thomas, 1997) and post-operative gynecological patients (Burke, 1997). Walters (1996) also studied the psychological and physiological effects of vibrotactile stimulation, via Somatron, on patients awaiting scheduled gynecological surgery. 52Hz has also been used for menstrual pains and symenhorea with good results (Skille, 1989; Skille & Wigram, 1995 p. 39). According to Skille, Wigram & Weekes (1989), Skille (1989), and Skille & Wigram, (1995) low frequency sound waves are reported to relieve pain and to reduce the length of the rehabilitation period when treating sports injuries, such as acute muscle traumas or post-operative convalesneces. At the LCMTR we conducted a sports injury research (Tiidus, Markoulakis, Murray, Bryden, Ahonen-EerikÃ¤inen, 2008) in collaboration with Karkkainen in which we used frequencies between 40 Hz and 60Hz.
50 Hz has been releasing lung secretions in patients with cystic fibrosis, bronchienctasis and chest infections (Skille, Wigram & Weekes, 1989, p. 6-10; Skille & Wigram, 1995, p. 38). There are also several reports that show relief of symptoms in patients suffering from pulmonary emphysema when using 40 Hz and 50 Hz frequencies. 50Hz frequency is effective with asthma symptoms. (Skille, 1989; Skille & Wigram, 1995, p. 39). The LCMTR has been launching projects in collaboration with Voice Department, Music Therapy and Kinesiology.
According to Butler & Butler (1997) Physioacoustic treatment is effective with cardiac patients. There was also significant result in the reduction of systolic blood pressure after vibroacoustic therapy when using 40 Hz and 60 Hz frequencies (Skille & Wigram 1995, p. 45-49; Skille & Bronstad, 1988-89, cited in Skille & Wigram, 1995, p. 49-52). Similar results were reported in Finland at the University Hospital of Kuopio when using physioacoustic chairs. 40 Hz and 50Hz has been successful treating patients suffering circulatory deficiency. There were also good results with institutionalized patients with oedema (Skille & Wigram, 1995, p. 40, 44). 40Hz has also been helping the digestive system (Skille, 1989; Skille & Wigram, 1995).
40 Hz has been used for insomnia (Skille, 1989; Skille, Wigram & Weeks, 1989; Skille & Wigram, 1995, p. 40). There is some evidence that 52-68Hz helps clients with anxiety (Skille and Wigram, 1995). Hooper & Lindsay, (1997) used the Somatron in the treatment of anxiety problems with clients who have learning disabilities. Naukkarinen, Lehikoinen, Paakkari & Saikkonen (1990) were using the physioacoustic method in the treatment of the psychic anxiety. At the Tallinn Pedagogical University in Estonia, vibroacoustic relaxation was part of the university health care. The research results show good results using music, vibroacoustic and counseling to treat stress (Ruutel, 2002). 40 Hz and 68Hz also seem to help for stress induced depression (Skille, 1989, Skille & Wigram, 1995, p. 39; Ala-Ruona, 2003). In Finland i.e. Sibelius Academy and KANSA insurance company used the physioacoustic chairs as part of their employee health care and stress release program (Lehikoinen, 1996; Paju, 2003).
In her doctoral dissertation, Dr. Ulla Hairo-Lax introduced her results of using Physioacoustic treatment with alcoholic addicted (Hairo, 2003, p.194-212). In Finland Physioacoustic therapy has also been widely used in treatments of substance addicted (i.e. Punkanen, 2003, p. 214-246). Dr. Jaakko Erkkila (2003) describes in his study of physioacoustic method in the treatment of gambling addiction. Music psychotherapeutic Psychoauditive method (PAM) combines low frequency sound wave treatment and therapeutic music listening (Ahonen-Eerikainen, 1996). The gentle and relaxing low frequency massage during imaginal music listening sharpens the body sensations. Expressing body sensations can lead to an expression of feelings. The next phase is improvising about body sensations, expressing and communicating about them: â€œThis is how my back pain would sound,â€ â€œThis is how my neck tension would sound,â€ etc. The Psychoauditive Method works well with people who have problems expressing their feelings, e.g., clients with alexitymia or psychosomatic symptoms. It is sometimes easier to discuss body sensations first, then feelings, emotions, and issues surrounding them.
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