CLIENT POPULATIONS AND COMMON FREQUENCIES USED

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      Heidi
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      LOW FREQUENCY RESEARCH—CLIENT POPULATIONS AND COMMON FREQUENCIES USED

      -LITERATURE REVIEW

      By Dr. Heidi Ahonen,

      Professor of Music Therapy, Wilfrid Laurier University, Ontario, Canada (www.wlu.ca)

      Director of the Laurier Centre for Music Therapy Research (www.soundeffects.wlu.ca)

      In this post I want to summarize the conditions that, according to previous low frequency research projects are responding well to low frequency based treatment. I also want to introduce the common frequencies used. This information can be used as a starting point for future research projects.

      40 Hz and 68 Hz are effective with autistic children (Skille, 1989; Skille & Wigram, 1995, p. 38; Persoons, J., DeBacker, J., 1997) and frequencies under 60 Hz are effective for Rett’s syndrome. According to Wigram (1997) children relaxed and their hyperventilation and tension reduced. Vibroacoustic treatment has been used with hearing-impaired clients (Skille, 1992). Darrow & Goll (1989) and Darrow (1992) also studied how the Somatron improved rhythm identification and pitch discrimination.

      There has been previous studies with parkinsonism and vibroacoustic by San Vicente, Manchola & Serna (1997) in Txagorritxu Hospital, Basquie Health Service. 40Hz frequency was used with 60 patients with Parkinson’s disease. This double-blind randomized study combined music and low frequency waves vs. music without low frequency waves. There was also a follow-up after one year. The Scale of Daily Activities and the Exploration of Motor aspects were used. There was a subjective assessment by the patients themselves and by the medical doctor. The assessment of the results were positive in the areas of movement, personal autonomy and memory. At the LCMTR (http://www.soundeffects.wlu.ca) we conducted a parkinsons research in which we used 30Hz frequency (Almeida, King, Ahonen-Eerikäinen, 2009) in collaboration with Karkkainen. The results were significant. Winter 2009 we conducted a clinical case study combining 30Hz and 40Hz.

      Lehikoinen (1994, 1997) studied that the 40Hz frequency may reinforce the thalamus frequency which is also 40Hz (Galambos, Makeing, Tamachoff, 1981, cited in Lehikoinen, 1994, p. 27). [Delta wave frequency is approximately 0.5-4 Hz, Theta 4-8 Hz, alpha 8-13 Hz, beta 13-30 Hz, and gamma is appr 20-80 Hz (Bressler, 1990, cited in Lehikoinen, 1994, p. 27).] There has also been some evidence that the 40Hz brain wave is disturbed or disappears in the early stages of Alzheimer disease (Llinas & Ribary, 1992, 1993). According to Lehikoinen (1994) Physioacoustic treatment, based on the 40Hz frequency, reinforces the thalamus frequency. Because Thalamus has a role in the cognitive brain functioning it would be crucial to stimulate it in the early stages of Alzheimer disease. If the 40 Hz has been disturbed or disappeared it may come back if stimulated by the Physioacoustic method. The current research proposal at LCMTR is to find out if the thalamus frequency can be reinforced by the physioacoustic method. If so the 40Hz frequency-intervention can be a potential intervention for stroke, altzheimer or other brain injured clients.

      40 Hz and 60Hz has also been effective when treating wide range of spasticity (Skille & Wigram, 1995; Wigram, 1997). 40Hz and 60Hz frequencies have been effective alone and in combination with physiotherapy when treating cerebral palsy. There has been some results in reducing muscle tone (Skille, 1989; Skille & Wigram, 1995, p. 41- 44). 40 Hz has been effective in multiple sclerosis. According to Skille (1989) and Skille & Wigram (1995) “reduction of rigidity and considerable palliative effect has been reported” (p. 40). 40 Hz has been useful when used with patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (Chesky, Rubin & Friske, 1992). Results show that music vibration reduced some pain. 40 Hz has also been used when treating polyarthritis, especially in hands and chest (Skille, 1989; Skille & Wigram, 1995, p. 40).

      Michel & Chesky (1996) studied music vibration in pain relief. According to Skille (1989) and Skille & Wigram (1995, p. 39) low-back pains have been reduced by the use of 52 Hz frequency. Accordingly 68Hz has been effective with neck and shoulder pains. Physioacoustic treatment has also been used in order to decrease the pain of knee replacement patients (Burke and Thomas, 1997) and post-operative gynecological patients (Burke, 1997). Walters (1996) also studied the psychological and physiological effects of vibrotactile stimulation, via Somatron, on patients awaiting scheduled gynecological surgery. 52Hz has also been used for menstrual pains and symenhorea with good results (Skille, 1989; Skille & Wigram, 1995 p. 39). According to Skille, Wigram & Weekes (1989), Skille (1989), and Skille & Wigram, (1995) low frequency sound waves are reported to relieve pain and to reduce the length of the rehabilitation period when treating sports injuries, such as acute muscle traumas or post-operative convalesneces. At the LCMTR we conducted a sports injury research (Tiidus, Markoulakis, Murray, Bryden, Ahonen-Eerikäinen, 2008) in collaboration with Karkkainen in which we used frequencies between 40 Hz and 60Hz.

      50 Hz has been releasing lung secretions in patients with cystic fibrosis, bronchienctasis and chest infections (Skille, Wigram & Weekes, 1989, p. 6-10; Skille & Wigram, 1995, p. 38). There are also several reports that show relief of symptoms in patients suffering from pulmonary emphysema when using 40 Hz and 50 Hz frequencies. 50Hz frequency is effective with asthma symptoms. (Skille, 1989; Skille & Wigram, 1995, p. 39). The LCMTR has been launching projects in collaboration with Voice Department, Music Therapy and Kinesiology.

      According to Butler & Butler (1997) Physioacoustic treatment is effective with cardiac patients. There was also significant result in the reduction of systolic blood pressure after vibroacoustic therapy when using 40 Hz and 60 Hz frequencies (Skille & Wigram 1995, p. 45-49; Skille & Bronstad, 1988-89, cited in Skille & Wigram, 1995, p. 49-52). Similar results were reported in Finland at the University Hospital of Kuopio when using physioacoustic chairs. 40 Hz and 50Hz has been successful treating patients suffering circulatory deficiency. There were also good results with institutionalized patients with oedema (Skille & Wigram, 1995, p. 40, 44). 40Hz has also been helping the digestive system (Skille, 1989; Skille & Wigram, 1995).

      40 Hz has been used for insomnia (Skille, 1989; Skille, Wigram & Weeks, 1989; Skille & Wigram, 1995, p. 40). There is some evidence that 52-68Hz helps clients with anxiety (Skille and Wigram, 1995). Hooper & Lindsay, (1997) used the Somatron in the treatment of anxiety problems with clients who have learning disabilities. Naukkarinen, Lehikoinen, Paakkari & Saikkonen (1990) were using the physioacoustic method in the treatment of the psychic anxiety. At the Tallinn Pedagogical University in Estonia, vibroacoustic relaxation was part of the university health care. The research results show good results using music, vibroacoustic and counseling to treat stress (Ruutel, 2002). 40 Hz and 68Hz also seem to help for stress induced depression (Skille, 1989, Skille & Wigram, 1995, p. 39; Ala-Ruona, 2003). In Finland i.e. Sibelius Academy and KANSA insurance company used the physioacoustic chairs as part of their employee health care and stress release program (Lehikoinen, 1996; Paju, 2003).

      In her doctoral dissertation, Dr. Ulla Hairo-Lax introduced her results of using Physioacoustic treatment with alcoholic addicted (Hairo, 2003, p.194-212). In Finland Physioacoustic therapy has also been widely used in treatments of substance addicted (i.e. Punkanen, 2003, p. 214-246). Dr. Jaakko Erkkila (2003) describes in his study of physioacoustic method in the treatment of gambling addiction. Music psychotherapeutic Psychoauditive method (PAM) combines low frequency sound wave treatment and therapeutic music listening (Ahonen-Eerikainen, 1996). The gentle and relaxing low frequency massage during imaginal music listening sharpens the body sensations. Expressing body sensations can lead to an expression of feelings. The next phase is improvising about body sensations, expressing and communicating about them: “This is how my back pain would sound,” “This is how my neck tension would sound,” etc. The Psychoauditive Method works well with people who have problems expressing their feelings, e.g., clients with alexitymia or psychosomatic symptoms. It is sometimes easier to discuss body sensations first, then feelings, emotions, and issues surrounding them.

      References

      Ahonen-Eerikäinen, H. (1996). PAM – Psykoauditiivinen musiikkiterapiamenetelma. Musiikkiterapia, 1, 33-45.

      Ala-Ruona, E. (2003). Fysioakustinen hoito osana erikoissairaanhoitoa ja kuntoutustutkimusta. In Ala-Ruona, E., Erkkilan, J., Jukkola, & Lehtonen, K. (Eds.). Muistoissa. Petri Lehikoinen 1940- 2001. (pp. 173-193).

      Almeida, Q., King, L. Ahonen-Eerikainen, H. (2009). The Effects of Sound Wave Vibration Therapy on Motor Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease. Neuro Rehabilitation. (In Press.)

      Bressler. S.L. (1990). Trends in Neuroscience. Vol 13, (5)

      Burke, M.A., Walsh, J., Oehler, J., Gingras, J. (1995). Music therapy following suctioning: Four case studies. Neonatal Network 14(7):41-49.

      Burke, M. (1997). Effects of physioacoustic intervention on pain management of post operative gynecological patients. In T. Wigram, T. & Dileo, C. (Eds.). Music Vibration and Health. Cherry Hill, NJ: Jeffrey Books.

      Burke, M., Thomas, K. (1997). Use of physioacoustic therapy to reduce pain during physical therapy for total knee replacement patients over age 55. In Wigram, T. & Dileo, C. (Eds.) Music Vibration and Health. Cherry Hill, NJ: Jeffrey Books.

      Butler, C. & Butler, C. (1997). Physioacoustic therapy with cardiac surgery patients. In Wigram, T. & Dileo, C. Music, Vibration and Health. NJ: Jeffrey Books.

      Michel, D., Chesky, K. (1996). Music and music vibration in pain relief: standards in research. In Spintge, D & R. Dron, R. (Eds.). Music Medicine. Vol 2. St Louis, MO: MMB Music, Inc.

      Chesky, K., Rubin, B., & Frische, E. (1992). The Pain Relieving Effect of Music Vibration on Rheumatoid Arthitis Patients as Related to Just Music and Placebo. ISME conference, book of abstracts.

      Darrow, A.(1992). The effect of vibrotactile stimuli via the Somatron on the identification of pitch change by hearing impaired children. Journal of Music Therapy, 29(2):103-112.

      Darrow, A. & Goll, H. (1989). The effect of vibrotactile stimuli via the Somatron on the identification of rhythmic concepts by hearing impaired children. Journal of Music Therapy, 26(3):115-124.

      Erkkilä, J. (2003) Music Therapy Methods In The Treatment Of Gambling Addiction. Music Therapy Today (online) Vol. IV (3) June 2003, available at http://musictherapyworld.net.

      Galambos, R., Making, S. & Tamachoff, P. (1981). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Psychology, 78, (4).

      Hairo, U. (2003). Nakokulmia musiikkiterapian mahdollisuuksiin paihdekuntoutuksessa. In Ala-Ruona, E., Erkkilan, J., Jukkola, & Lehtonen, K. (Eds.). Muistoissa. Petri Lehikoinen 1940- 2001. (pp. 194-212).

      Hooper, J., Lindsay, B. (1997). The use of the Somatron in the treatment of anxiety problems with clients who have learning disabilties. In Wigram, T. & Dileo, C. (Eds.). Music Vibration and Health. Cherry Hill, NJ: Jeffrey Books.

      Lehikoinen, P. (1994). Matalataajuuksinen varahtelyenergia ja musiikkiterapian neurofysiologinen perusta. In Ahonen-Eerikainen, H. (Ed.). Taide Psykososiaalisen Tyon Valineena. Joensuu: Pohjois-Karjalan Ammattikorkeakoulun julkaisuja, 26-34.

      Lehikoinen, P., & Kanstren, J. (1996). Corporate Health Care Experiment at the Sibelius Academy (Research report). Helsinki: Sibelius Academy.

      Lehikoinen, P. (1997). The Physioacoustic method. In Wigram, T. & Dileo, C. (Eds.). Music Vibration and Health. Cherry Hill, NJ: Jeffrey Books.

      Lehikoinen, P. (1998) The physioacoustic method: acoustic vibration in medicine. Musiikkikasvatus. Helsinki:Sibelius Akatemia, 3, 25-50.

      Llinas, R., Ribary, U. (1993). Coherent 40-Hz oscillation characterizes dreamlike states in humans. Neurobiology, 90:2078-2081.

      Llinas, R. & Ribary, U. (1992). Rostrocaudal scan in human brain: a global characteristic of the 40-Hz response during sensory input. In Basar, E. & Bullock, T. (Eds.). Induced Rhythms in the Brain. Birkhauser.

      Naukkarinen, H., Lehikoinen, P., Paakkari, T. & Saikkonen, N. (1990). The Physioacoustic Method in the Treatment of the psychic anxiety. Research paper. 5th International Congress of Psychophysiology, Budapest, Hungary, July 9-14.

      Paju, K. (2003). Parantavat Hertzit! – Katsaus Petri Lehikoisen kirjalliseen tuotantoon ja fysioakustiseen menetelmaan suomalaisten tutkimusten ja artikkelien valossa. In Ala-Ruona, E., Erkkilan, J., Jukkola, & Lehtonen, K. (Eds.). Muistoissa. Petri Lehikoinen 1940- 2001. (pp. 141-167).

      Persoons, J., DeBacker, J. (1997). Vibroacoustic therapy with handicapped and autistic adolescents. In Wigram, T. & Dileo, C. (Eds.). Music Vibration and Health. Cherry Hill, NJ: Jeffrey Books.

      Punkanen, M. (2003). Matkalla mieleen ja tunteisiin – FA- menetelma ja musiikkiterapia huumekuntoutuksessa. In Ala-Ruona, E., Erkkilan, J., Jukkola, & Lehtonen, K. (Eds.). Muistoissa. Petri Lehikoinen 1940- 2001. (pp. 214-246).

      Ruutel, E. (2002). The psychophysiological effect of music and vibroacoustics Stimulation. Nordic Journal, 11 (1), 16-26.

      San Vicente, P. del C., Macnhola, I.F. & Serna, E.T. (1997). (1997). The use of Vibroacoustics in idiopathic parkinson’s disease. In Wigram, T. & Dileo, C. Music Vibration and Health. Cherry Hill, NJ: Jeffrey Books.

      Skille, O, (1986). Manual of Vibroacoustics. Levanger, Norway: ISVA Publications.

      Skille, O. (1989). Vibro Acoustic Therapy. Music Therapy, 8 , 61-77.

      Skille, O. and Wigram, T. (1995). The effects of music, vocalization and vibrations on brain and muscle tissue: Studies in Vibroacoustic Therapy. In Wigram, T., Saperston, B, & West, R. (Eds.) The Art and Science of Music Therapy: A Handbook (pp. 23-57). London: Harwood Academic.

      Skille, O. and Wigram, T. (1990). The effect of sound and vibration on brain and muscle tissue in Wigram, T. (Ed.) Music and the Healing Process – a Handbook of Music Therapy. Chichester: Garden Publications.

      Skille, O., Wigram, T. & Weeks, L. (1989). Vibroacoustic Therapy: The therapeutic effect of low frequency sound on specific physical disorders and disabilities. Journal of British Music Therapy. 3, 6-10.

      Skille, O. (1992). Vibroacoustic research 1980-1991. In R. Spintge, R. Dron (Eds.). Music Medicine. St Louis, MO: MMB Music, Inc.

      Tiidus, P.M, , Markoulakis, R., Murray, D., Pamela J. Bryden, P.J, Ahonen-Eerikäinen, H. (2008). Physioacoustictherapy:placebo effect on recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine.

      Tiidus, P., Markoulakis, R., Murray, D., Karkainnen, M. & Ahonen-Eerikainen, H. (2007). Physio-Acoustic Therapy and Placebo Effect in Muscle Recovery. Applied Physiology Nutriton & Metabolism. Journal of the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, Vol. 33 (supplement), Nov. 2007.

      Walters, C.L. (1996). The psychological and physiological effects of vibrotactile stimulation, via a Somatron, on patients awaiting scheduled gynecological surgery. Journal of Music Therapy, 33(4):261-287.

      Wigram, T. (1993). The feeling of sound – the effect of music and low frequency sound in reducing anxiety in challenging behaviour in clients with learning difficulties. In Payne, H. (Ed.) Handbook of Enquiry in the Art Therapies One River, Many Currents. London: Jessica Kingsley Publications.

      Wigram, T. (1996). The Effects of Vibroacoustic Therapy on Clinical and Non-Clinical Populations. Ph.D. Thesis, London University.

      Wigram, T. (1997). The effect of vibroacoustic therapy compared with music and movement based physiotherapy on multiply handicapped patients with high muscle tone and spasticity. In Wigram, T. & Dileo, C. (Eds.). Music Vibration and Health. Cherry Hill, NJ: Jeffrey Books.

      Wigram, T. (1997c). Vibroacoustic therapy in the treatment of Rett syndrome. In Wigram, T. & Dileo, C. (Eds.). Music Vibration and Health. Cherry Hill, NJ: Jeffrey Books.

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